Asking the Clergy: What is the significance of food during Passover?

Rabbi Ben Herman, Jericho Jewish Center

Rabbi Ben Herman, Jericho Jewish Center Photo Credit: Ellen Dubin

Why is food central to Passover?

The eight-day festival of Passover begins Friday evening. This week’s clergy discuss the role of food in the traditional Passover seder meal.


Rabbi Ben Herman

Jericho Jewish Center

The joke about Jewish holidays is that they can be summed up in one phrase: “They tried to kill us, we won, let’s eat!” No holiday has food as a more central component than Passover. On the first two nights of Passover, we have a meal called the seder in which we make a plate with foods representing our ancestors being slaves in Egypt and their eventual redemption. Items on the seder plate are maror or bitter herbs, representing the bitterness of slavery; haroset, symbolizing the mortar used to make the bricks; saltwater, the tears our ancestors cried while enslaved; zeroa, a shank bone; and the Paschal lamb sacrificed by our ancestors and signifying that God took us out of Egypt with an outstretched hand. Also, an egg, representing the communal hagigah sacrifice; and karpas, a vegetable, generally green, representing that spring has come — the season in which the exodus from Egypt occurred. Let us not forget the matzoh, the unleavened bread our ancestors ate because they were in such a rush to leave Egypt that they didn’t have time for it to rise. As a result, we do not eat any substance which has leavened, and actually wipe away all traces of leavened substances, cleaning out our refrigerators, kitchens, offices and even automobiles, needing to get rid of every crumb. This massive ordeal is done in part to eat simpler foods (many subsist on matzoh, fruits and vegetables during this holiday) and in so doing emulating our ancestors’ experience of living in the desert. By focusing on the food we eat and giving symbolic meaning to much of it, we get the sense we fulfill the commandment to relive the Exodus from Egypt.

Being Thankful

When do we pray to G-d? Often we pray when we are in need of assistance. However, wouldn’t it make sense to pray for the bounty of blessings that we have? In our new weekday Siddur, the Koren Ani Tefilah, Dr. Jay Goldmintz comments on the phrase –יעמס לנוhe burdens us (With his blessings) “Yet how many of us focus on the things we don’t have instead? Think of all of the good things in your life that others do not have. They would look at us and say that we are burdened with blessings. We need to recognize it to. What do I have that many others do not?”[1]

One of the five types of sacrifice mentioned in Parshat VaYikra and reiterated this week in Parshat Tzav is the Zevah Shlamim, the sacrifice of well-being. This is the only one of the five sacrifices which is optional, brought by one who is appreciative of his/her bounty to thank G-d for all that s/he has. The sacrifice contains within it the word for שלום, or peace. Growing up, I often thought that peace meant no conflict, an end to arguments and fighting. Now, I recognize that a better definition of peace, of שלום, is the word שלמות, a sense of wholeness; that every aspect of your life is at peace, aligned and well. When you have an inner peace, you are aware of the bounty that you have and there is reason to rejoice, giving some of the best of what you have to G-d and having a festive meal where you eat the rest.

We acknowledge our gratitude at morning minyan through reciting מזמור לתודה, a psalm of thanksgiving.[2] In that psalm we proclaim עבדו את יה בשמחה, באו לפניו ברנה, “Let us serve G-d with joy, let us come before Him with singing.”[3] Every day we are supposed to show our gratitude to G-d for creating us, for giving us a unique destiny and mission in life. We do so by being joyous, going through our day bursting with passion and enthusiasm for being alive and for being able to make a difference in the world.

It is no accident that we read Parshat Tzav most years on Shabbat HaGadol, the Sabbath immediately preceding Passover. On Passover we demonstrate our joy for all that we have, especially at the beginning of the מגיד section, where we tell the story of Passover. We hold up the Matzah with our front door open and say כל דכפין ייתי ויכול, כל דצריך ייתי ויפסח all who are hungry, come and eat, all who are in need, let them come and celebrate Passover.” This message was written in Aramaic, the spoken language of the commoner, precisely to indicate that no matter what one’s education, knowledge or background is, they are welcomed in as a royal guest for this festive meal.

Parshat Tzav is a portion about command, as the word Tzav is a short form of Mitzvah. However, it can also be used in the sense of instructing others, which is why it has been chosen for Educators Shabbat. Educators have the blessing of instructing others, not only imparting knowledge but also teaching them about themselves and the world in which we live. Often this involves teachers learning from their students as well. After all, Rebbi said in the Talmud הרבה תורה למדתי מרבותי, ומחבירי יותר מהם, ומתלמידי יותר מכולן; “I have learned a lot of Torah from my teachers and from my peers more than them, but most of all from my students.”[4]

Today we show gratitude to our educators for the difference they have made in our lives and how they have spiritually touched us through their passion and enthusiasm for their craft. Think back to the best teacher you’ve ever had. What made that person so great? I imagine the content that was taught has a secondary role to how that person made us feel and/or how s/he brought the subject to life. Our educators work hard hours trying to personally connect with each student and often don’t realize the impact they’ve made until decades later if that student calls them up and lets them know or comes back to visit.

To our educators-thank you for what you do each and every day to inspire us as well as the next generations to be people of ethics, of value and mentschim. May we continue to celebrate your successes and emulate the example you have set for us.

[1] Rabbi Jonathan Sacks comment in The Koren Ani Tefila Siddur, Iyun Tefila, p. 249.

[2] Psalm 100

[3] Psalm 100:2

[4] Babylonian Talmud Makkot 10a

Moses and Drugs

We chose today for Pharmacist Shabbat in order to ensure that Bill Kassimir and Arny Wishner, pharmacists by trade who does so much for our congregation, could be back from vacation. We are also celebrating the 100th birthday of the father-in-law of a pharmacist, Max Fontak, so it is a very fitting Shabbat to honor our pharmacists. However, I want to take you back to two weeks ago when we read Parshat Ki Tisa, as there’s an interesting reference found by Rena Klein. In the middle of the portion, we see ויאמר ה אל משה: קח לך סמים, “G-d said to Moses ‘take for yourself herbs,”[1] and then it lists four herbs (Stacte, onycha, galbanum and frankincense). It goes on to say רקח מעשה רקח, “this is the work of a pharmacist.”[2] The herbs are being used to make incense which will be put in front of the Tent of Meeting. In Modern Hebrew, סמים is the word for drugs, indicating that Moses was in fact an early pharmacist. He had to figure out the proper concoction of these herbs to make potent incense to burn before G-d. Furthermore, this incense could only be used before G-d, not for Israel’s own personal use.[3]

Why would the incense used be so important? After all, Parshat Ki Tisa is not the only place in which it is mentioned. At the end of Eyn Keloheinu, we have a line which says אתה הוא שהקטירו אבותנו לפניך את קטרת הסמים, “You have instructed our ancestors in the making of incense.” Orthodox Siddurim then have a section called פטום הקטורת (pitum haketoret) from Mishnah Keritut,[4] listing eleven types of spices and other substances, along with their quantities, that go into the making of incense. In reading this, we see that the rabbis were aware of mixtures of various herbs and spices in making the incense, so much so that the passage contains the phrase ואם חסר אחת מכל סמניה חיב מיטה, “if one of the herbs was left out, one was liable for death.” Every ingredient was of utmost importance.

When we look at Parshat VaYikra, we see the importance of the incense. Five types of sacrifices are mentioned: Olah, Mincha, Zevah Shlamim, Hatat and Asham. Of those five, four of them are from animals, the exception being the Mincha, or flour, offering. With so many animals being sacrificed on an ongoing basis, the Tabernacle must have stunk, and incense would have been needed to mask the smell. After all sacrifices were supposed to be ריח ניחוח, of pleasant smell,[5] and burning entire animals could not have had a good smell without help from aromatic substances like incense.

We see the great care that was put into making the incense for the Tabernacle. Similarly, we know from the work of pharmacists that like the recipe for the incense, precision matters. Everything must appear in exactly the right quantity, as even the most minute error of milligrams can have a disastrous effect. The attention to detail both of pharmacists today and of those from biblical and rabbinic times is essential. Someone like me might have glazed-over eyes when reading a long list of ingredients that go into a medicine; not so for pharmacists, who must be aware of every iota of its contents.

Let us honor those pharmacists who have given so much both to their professions and to the Jericho Jewish Center: Seymour Cohen, Bill Kassimir, Arny Wishner, Jake Jacobson and Sy Kirshenbaum in abstentia; and Nancy Sherman who works in pharmaceuticals. We appreciate your ongoing dedication to all that you do and are blessed to have you as part of our sacred community. Thank you for who you are, for what you do and for following in the footsteps of Moses in making “wonder-drugs” out of herbs.

[1] Exodus 30:34

[2] Exodus 30:35

[3] See Exodus 30:37

[4] Mishnah Keritut 6:1

[5] Leviticus 1:9

Fire: The Ultimate Creative Act

The beginning of this morning’s Torah portion has a verse that I find peculiar.  Its third line reads לא תבערו אש בכל מושבותיכם ביום השבת, “You shall not allow a fire to burn in any of your dwelling places on the Sabbath day.”[1]  The reason I find this verse strange is that the Israelites were already instructed in the 10 Commandments לא תעשה כל מלאכה, “You shall not perform any creative activity,” [2]  so why is there a verse singling out the prohibition on fire? It is the only one of the מלאכות that is singled out, and our sages assert that there must be a meaning behind this.

Interestingly, the Karaites took this verse literally, asserting that any fire that was burning had to be extinguished before Shabbat began. They would therefore spend Shabbat in the dark, especially during the long winter months. Rabbinic interpretation took this as that one cannot cause a new fire to burn on Shabbat but an existing fire could be left burning for the duration of Shabbat.


Two schools of thought in Talmud Yevamot disagree as to why the prohibition on fire is specifically mentioned.  One is that of Rabbi Yosi, who states that fire is not considered a מלאכה, a form of creative activity, but rather a לאו, simply something that one should not use on the Sabbat. The other opinion is Rabbi Nathan’s, who asserts that fire is a מלאכה and is listed specifically as an example to show that each מלאכה on its own should not be done.[3]

I am not persuaded by either rabbi but rather by a third statement from the medieval commentator Nachmanides (Ramban).  He explains that fire is specified because unlike the other מלאכות, it is permissible on Festivals but is prohibited on Shabbat.  In fact, that Talmud states that the restrictions on Festivals and Shabbat are the exactly the same משום אכל נפש בלבד, except for fire used for cooking.[4] Nachmanides asserts that the Torah wanted to make clear the distinction between Festivals and the Sabbath, and hence a separate statement was created to make clear that fire, while permitted on Festivals, is forbidden on the Sabbath.

I relate to Nachmanides’ teaching because I love the use of fire, especially for cooking.  Since getting married my cooking skills have regressed to making eggs for Ariela and me, as I am blessed to have a wonderful wife, Karina, who cooks gourmet dishes from scratch. Wonderful aromas waft from our kitchen, especially on Friday afternoons.  Six days a week we cook with fire the kitchen, yet on the seventh day we get to sit back and appreciate the beauty of God’s creation.  Without this seventh day to reflect on creation, the other six have less meaning.  To me, the statement on not using fire on Shabbat means being able to spend time with friends and family, reaping the benefits of the work done on Friday.

We know how important rest is and how ceasing from one’s work can recharge our batteries. At the same time, we recognize that some have chosen careers that don’t afford them the opportunity to rest. A businessperson, who has to produce and sell a certain amount of inventory, make sure to make payroll and constantly develop innovative ideas to solve problems, does not always have the opportunity to take a break and rest. That is why we are grateful that so many businessmen and women have joined us for this restful Shabbat so that we can honor them for the countless hours of hard work that they do.

As we are immersed in another Shabbat, I think it is important to think about what we do to differentiate Shabbat from the rest of the week.  Some might reflect on the experience of participating in Shabbat services with festive song and prayer and with our new hazzan as a distinguishing experience of Shabbat.  Others might think, as I do, about relaxing with friends and family.  Most of all, what sets Shabbat apart is taking a step back and reveling in God’s creation, be it through seeing new leaves on trees (G-d willing soon), the recent snowfall or blooming flowers.  During the week we are occupied in the details of creative acts, and Shabbat is the opportunity to pause, step back and see the big picture.  I hope that this coming week gives each of us opportunities to appreciate both the creative acts that we perform and those that occur by virtue of our living in this world.

[1] Exodus 35:3

[2] Exodus 20:9

[3] Babylonian Talmud Tractate Yevamot 6b

[4] Ramban on Exodus 35:3 ד”ה לא תבערו אש בכל מושבותיכם ביום השבת

Megilla Magic: Unique Motifs in the Book of Esther

Unique Factors about the Megillat Esther

  • Parts are read in Eicha Trope
  • Lines are repeated (call-and-response)
  • Words are repeated due to uncertainty as to which preposition is correct
  • Emphasis when King Ahasheurus’s dream occurs
  • Special Trope
  • Hanging of Haman’s 10 Sons in one breath


  1. Parts of the Megilla read in Eicha (Lamentations) Trope


ז  וְהַשְׁקוֹת בִּכְלֵי זָהָב, וְכֵלִים מִכֵּלִים שׁוֹנִים; וְיֵין מַלְכוּת רָב, כְּיַד הַמֶּלֶךְ. 1:7 And they gave them drink in vessels of gold–the vessels being diverse one from another–and royal wine in abundance, according to the bounty of the king.


ו  אֲשֶׁר הָגְלָה, מִירוּשָׁלַיִם, עִם-הַגֹּלָה אֲשֶׁר הָגְלְתָה, עִם יְכָנְיָה מֶלֶךְ-יְהוּדָה–אֲשֶׁר הֶגְלָה, נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל. 2:6 who had been carried away from Jerusalem with the captives that had been carried away with Jeconiah king of Judah, whom Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon had carried away.



טו  הָרָצִים יָצְאוּ דְחוּפִים, בִּדְבַר הַמֶּלֶךְ, וְהַדָּת נִתְּנָה, בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה; וְהַמֶּלֶךְ וְהָמָן יָשְׁבוּ לִשְׁתּוֹת, וְהָעִיר שׁוּשָׁן נָבוֹכָה. 3:15 The posts went forth in haste by the king’s command, and the decree was given out in Shushan the castle; and the king and Haman sat down to drink; but the city of Shushan was perplexed.


א  וּמָרְדֳּכַי, יָדַע אֶת-כָּל-אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשָׂה, וַיִּקְרַע מָרְדֳּכַי אֶת-בְּגָדָיו, וַיִּלְבַּשׁ שַׂק וָאֵפֶר; וַיֵּצֵא בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר, וַיִּזְעַק זְעָקָה גְדוֹלָה וּמָרָה.


ג  וּבְכָל-מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה, מְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר דְּבַר-הַמֶּלֶךְ וְדָתוֹ מַגִּיעַ–אֵבֶל גָּדוֹל לַיְּהוּדִים, וְצוֹם וּבְכִי וּמִסְפֵּד; שַׂק וָאֵפֶר, יֻצַּע לָרַבִּים.

1 Now when Mordecai knew all that was done, Mordecai rent his clothes, and put on sackcloth with ashes, and went out into the midst of the city, and cried with a loud and a bitter cry;


3 And to every province where the king’s commandment and his decree came, there was great mourning among the Jews, and fasting, and weeping, and wailing; and many lay in sackcloth and ashes.


טז  לֵךְ כְּנוֹס אֶת-כָּל-הַיְּהוּדִים הַנִּמְצְאִים בְּשׁוּשָׁן, וְצוּמוּ עָלַי וְאַל-תֹּאכְלוּ וְאַל-תִּשְׁתּוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים לַיְלָה וָיוֹם–גַּם-אֲנִי וְנַעֲרֹתַי, אָצוּם כֵּן; וּבְכֵן אָבוֹא אֶל-הַמֶּלֶךְ, אֲשֶׁר לֹא-כַדָּת, וְכַאֲשֶׁר אָבַדְתִּי, אָבָדְתִּי. 4:16 ‘Go, gather together all the Jews that are present in Shushan, and fast ye for me, and neither eat nor drink three days, night or day; I also and my maidens will fast in like manner; and so will I go in unto the king, which is not according to the law; and if I perish, I perish.’


ג  וַתַּעַן אֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה, וַתֹּאמַר–אִם-מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ הַמֶּלֶךְ, וְאִם-עַל-הַמֶּלֶךְ טוֹב:  תִּנָּתֶן-לִי נַפְשִׁי בִּשְׁאֵלָתִי, וְעַמִּי בְּבַקָּשָׁתִי.


ד  כִּי נִמְכַּרְנוּ אֲנִי וְעַמִּי, לְהַשְׁמִיד לַהֲרוֹג וּלְאַבֵּד; וְאִלּוּ לַעֲבָדִים וְלִשְׁפָחוֹת נִמְכַּרְנוּ, הֶחֱרַשְׁתִּי–כִּי אֵין הַצָּר שֹׁוֶה, בְּנֵזֶק הַמֶּלֶךְ.

7:3 Then Esther the queen answered and said: ‘If I have found favor in your sight, O king, and if it please the king, let my life be given me at my petition, and my people at my request;


7:4 for we are sold, I and my people, to be destroyed, to be slain, and to perish. But if we had been sold for bondmen and bondwomen, I had held my peace, for the adversary is not worthy that the king be disturbed.


ו  כִּי אֵיכָכָה אוּכַל, וְרָאִיתִי, בָּרָעָה, אֲשֶׁר-יִמְצָא אֶת-עַמִּי; וְאֵיכָכָה אוּכַל וְרָאִיתִי, בְּאָבְדַן מוֹלַדְתִּי. 8:6 for how can I endure to see the evil that shall come unto my people? or how can I endure to see the destruction of my kindred?’



  1. Repeated Phrases


Traditionally, the reader pauses, allowing the congregation to also recite the text of the four verses in the Megillah which speak of Israel’s redemption: “There was a Jewish man in Shushan (Esther 2:5); And Mordechai went from before the king in royal clothing (ibid. 8:15); The Jews had illumination (ibid. 8:16); and the last verse of the Megillah, For Mordechai was deputy to the king (ibid. 10:3).” The reader then proceeds to repeat these verses since those who have their obligation fulfilled by listening to the Megillah, rather than reading it themselves must hear every word. The purpose of this custom is to intensify the joy and to keep the children from falling asleep, so that the story of the great miracle performed on Israel’s behalf during the time of Mordechai and Esther will enter their hearts.


ה  אִישׁ יְהוּדִי, הָיָה בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה; וּשְׁמוֹ מָרְדֳּכַי, בֶּן יָאִיר בֶּן-שִׁמְעִי בֶּן-קִישׁ–אִישׁ יְמִינִי. 2:5 There was a certain Jew in Shushan the castle, whose name was Mordecai the son of Jair the son of Shimei the son of Kish, a Benjamite,


טו  וּמָרְדֳּכַי יָצָא מִלִּפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ, בִּלְבוּשׁ מַלְכוּת תְּכֵלֶת וָחוּר, וַעֲטֶרֶת זָהָב גְּדוֹלָה, וְתַכְרִיךְ בּוּץ וְאַרְגָּמָן; וְהָעִיר שׁוּשָׁן, צָהֲלָה וְשָׂמֵחָה. 8:15 And Mordecai went forth from the presence of the king in royal apparel of blue and white, and with a great crown of gold, and with a robe of fine linen and purple; and the city of Shushan shouted and was glad.


טז  לַיְּהוּדִים, הָיְתָה אוֹרָה וְשִׂמְחָה, וְשָׂשֹׂן, וִיקָר. 8:16 The Jews had light and gladness, and joy and honor.


ג  כִּי מָרְדֳּכַי הַיְּהוּדִי, מִשְׁנֶה לַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ, וְגָדוֹל לַיְּהוּדִים, וְרָצוּי לְרֹב אֶחָיו–דֹּרֵשׁ טוֹב לְעַמּוֹ, וְדֹבֵר שָׁלוֹם לְכָל-זַרְעוֹ. 10:3 For Mordecai the Jew was next unto king Ahasuerus, and great among the Jews, and accepted of the multitude of his brethren; seeking the good of his people and speaking peace to all his seed.


  • Variant Readings
  About 200 years ago, 2 variations crept into Ashkenaz Megillot. Bifnehem/lifnehem (9:2) and laharog/velaharog (8:11). They are written the “wrong” way and read both ways, two times, according to Ashkenaz custom. To my knowledge, Sephardim do not know of any variation in these verses. Even Ashkenazim know which is the right way; it is just a custom to read it both ways (first as written, then the correct version).



יא  אֲשֶׁר נָתַן הַמֶּלֶךְ לַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּכָל-עִיר-וָעִיר, לְהִקָּהֵל וְלַעֲמֹד עַל-נַפְשָׁם–לְהַשְׁמִיד וְלַהֲרֹג וּלְאַבֵּד אֶת-כָּל-חֵיל עַם וּמְדִינָה הַצָּרִים אֹתָם, טַף וְנָשִׁים; וּשְׁלָלָם, לָבוֹז. 8:11 that the king had granted the Jews that were in every city to gather themselves together, and to stand for their life, to destroy, and to slay, and to cause to perish, all the forces of the people and province that would assault them, their little ones and women, and to take the spoil of them for a prey,


ב  נִקְהֲלוּ הַיְּהוּדִים בְּעָרֵיהֶם, בְּכָל-מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ, לִשְׁלֹחַ יָד, בִּמְבַקְשֵׁי רָעָתָם; וְאִישׁ לֹא-עָמַד לִפְנֵיהֶם, כִּי-נָפַל פַּחְדָּם עַל-כָּל-הָעַמִּים. 9:2 the Jews gathered themselves together in their cities throughout all the provinces of the king Ahasuerus, to lay hand on such as sought their hurt; and no man could withstand them; for the fear of them was fallen upon all the peoples.


  1. King Ahasheurus’s Sleep

It is customary to read the verse: “That night the sleep of the king was disturbed” (Esther 6:1), using a different and louder melody for the cantillation because this verse marks the point where Israel’s salvation began.


א  בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא, נָדְדָה שְׁנַת הַמֶּלֶךְ; וַיֹּאמֶר, לְהָבִיא אֶת-סֵפֶר הַזִּכְרֹנוֹת דִּבְרֵי הַיָּמִים, וַיִּהְיוּ נִקְרָאִים, לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ. 6:1 On that night the king could not sleep; and he commanded to bring the book of records of the chronicles, and they were read before the king.



  1. Special Trope


ט  וַיֹּאמֶר חַרְבוֹנָה אֶחָד מִן-הַסָּרִיסִים לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ, גַּם הִנֵּה-הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר-עָשָׂה הָמָן לְמָרְדֳּכַי אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר-טוֹב עַל-הַמֶּלֶךְ עֹמֵד בְּבֵית הָמָן–גָּבֹהַּ, חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה; וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ, תְּלֻהוּ עָלָיו. 7:9 Then said Harbonah, one of the chamberlains that were before the king: ‘Behold also, the gallows fifty cubits high, which Haman made for Mordecai, who spoke good for the king, standeth in the house of Haman.’ And the king said: ‘Hang him thereon.’


  1. Haman’s Sons

The names of Haman’s ten sons, the phrase five hundred men which precedes them, and the word ten which follows (Ibid. 9:6-10) are traditionally read in one breath, thereby indicating that they were all killed at one time. The five hundred men mentioned indicates that they were all followers of Haman’s sons who served as their commanding officers.


ו  וּבְשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה, הָרְגוּ הַיְּהוּדִים וְאַבֵּד–חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת,  אִישׁ.

ז  וְאֵת   פַּרְשַׁנְדָּתָא  וְאֵת

דַּלְפוֹן,  וְאֵת  אַסְפָּתָא.

ח  וְאֵת  פּוֹרָתָא  וְאֵת אֲדַלְיָא,  וְאֵת   אֲרִידָתָא.

ט  וְאֵת פַּרְמַשְׁתָּא  וְאֵת   אֲרִיסַי,  וְאֵת אֲרִידַי  וְאֵת    וַיְזָתָא.

י  עֲשֶׂרֶת  בְּנֵי הָמָן


6 And in Shushan the castle the Jews slew and destroyed five hundred men.

7 And Parshandatha, and Dalphon, and Aspatha,


8 And Poratha, and Adalia, and Aridatha,

9 and Parmashta, and Arisai, and Aridai, and Vaizatha,


10 the ten sons of Haman